The Impact of Trauma and Trauma-Sensitive Approaches
II. The Impact of Trauma and Trauma-Sensitive Approaches
a. Adverse Childhood Experiences
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Resources https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy/ Format: website Audiences/age groups: parents, caregivers/all Summary: Center for Disease Control’s website offering information about the ACEs study and the impacts of ACEs on health and well-being and how preventing ACEs and fostering resilience are a public health priority. Explains how Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships (SSNRs) and Environments (SSNEs) can help prevent ACEs from occurring and foster resilience for children who have already experienced ACEs.
Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Lifelong Consequences of Trauma https://www.aap.org/en-us/Documents/ttb_aces_consequences.pdf Format: pdf, 5pages Audience: professionals/all Summary: American Academy of Pediatrics brief explaining the biology of how ACEs and toxic stress have such profound impact on health and well-being and how nurturing relationships and other factors contribute to resilience.
ACEs Study Infographic http://vetoviolence.cdc.gov/apps/phl/resource_center_infographic.html Format: website Audiences/age groups: parents, caregivers/all Summary: Offers graphic representations of who were surveyed in the original ACEs study, the prevalence of ACEs, and how a higher number of ACEs correlates with higher risk for poor health, mental health, and quality of life outcomes.
NCTSN: Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Trauma: Preschool Children http://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/assets/pdfs/preschool_children.pdf Format: pdf, 2 pages Audiences/age groups: parents, professionals, caregivers/preK Summary: Offers examples of what behavior of traumatized children may look like in preschool and steps parents and caregivers can do to mitigate the adverse effects of exposure to trauma in early childhood.
NCTSN: Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief http://www.nctsn.org/trauma-types/traumatic-grief Format: webpage Audiences/age groups: professionals, caregivers, parents/preK-high school Summary: This document defines child traumatic grief and distinguishes it from normal childhood grief following the death of a close friend or family member. Some of the key features of child traumatic grief are discussed, along with examples of how it is similar to and different from normal grief. The document offers guidance and links to resources for adults who work with a child with child traumatic grief based on role (educators, parents & caregivers, for military children and families, and for kids and teens. Offers guidance for how and when to seek professional help.
b. Creating Trauma-Sensitive Learning Environments
Bring Resilience Science Into the Elementary Classroom Format: article Audiences: teachers/elementary http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2017/06/12/530893427/how-to-apply-the-brain-science-of-resilience-to-the-classroom?utm_source=facebook.com&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=npr&utm_term=nprnews&utm_content=20170830
A Place for Everyone: Nurturing Each Child’s Niche http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/bruceperry/niche.htm Format: Scholastic online article, 1 page Audiences/age groups: Professionals, parents, caregivers/PreK-elementary Summary: Explains how educators who are curious about and celebrate children’s individual differences, strengths, and interests can foster important skills and mindsets, e.g., early strengths serve as safe “bases” for future learning, appreciating individuals’ strengths helps students appreciate and celebrate diversity and develop self-awareness. Includes teacher tips for a strengths-based approach.
Creating Trauma Sensitive Classrooms http://www.naeyc.org/yc/files/yc/file/201505/YC0515_Trauma-Sensitive_Classrooms_Statman-Weil.pdf Format: pdf, 8 pages Audiences/age groups: Professionals, parents, caregivers/birth-elementary Summary: Explains how trauma impacts attachment and brain development and how trauma exposure is expressed in early childhood settings; offers resources for meeting the needs of families with children exposed to trauma and strategies for working with traumatized young children.
Creating an Emotionally Safe Classroom http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/creating-emotionally-safe-classroom Format: Scholastic online article, 1 page Audiences/age groups: Professionals, parents, caregivers/ PreK -elementary Summary: Discusses how curiosity drives learning and feeling unsafe and having unmet needs kills curiosity. Explains how “consistency of interaction with the teacher,” is at the root of emotional safety in the classroom and offers 7 tips for teachers for providing emotional safety at the start of the school year.
Curiosity: The Fuel for Development http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/bruceperry/curiosity.htm Format: Scholastic online article, 1 page Audiences/age groups: Professionals, parents, caregivers/ PreK -elementary Summary: Explains how curiosity drives the cycle of learning (curiosity, exploration, discovery): the reward of discovery leads to repetition, which leads to mastery, which leads to confidence which reinforces further exploration. Discusses how fear, disapproval, and the absence of a caring engaged adult constrain curiosity. Offers teacher tips for fostering curiosity and exploration. primes optimal learning experiences and incorporates pleasure in learning
The Developmental Hot Zone http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/bruceperry/hot_zone.htm Format: Scholastic online article, 1 page Audiences/age groups: Professionals, parents, caregivers/ PreK -elementary Summary: Discusses the importance of feeling safe in order for children to move outside their comfort zone and how being uncomfortable is essential to learning. Offers teacher tips for balancing providing safety and helping children step outside of their zone of comfort.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network’s Resources for School Personnel http://www.nctsn.org/resources/audiences/school-personnel Format: website Audiences/age groups: parents, professionals, caregivers/infants to adolescents Summary: Provides vast amount of resources explaining how trauma broadly impacts child development and advice for parents and helping professionals on how to best support children exposed to trauma. Many resources address specific types of trauma (e.g., natural disasters, interpersonal violence), the impact of and helpful responses to trauma at different ages. The school resources site offers a variety of resources including toolkits for working with traumatized children, school resources for school personnel to address a variety of types of trauma at different developmental levels, resources for bullying and cyberbullying, a field operations manual for providing psychological first aid to traumatized students, families, and staff.
NCTSN: Trauma Facts for Educators http://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/assets/pdfs/ctte_facts.pdf Format: pdf, 1 page Audiences/age groups: educators/preK-high school Summary: This one-page fact sheet is designed to help educators learn more about the impact of trauma on children's behavior and performance in a school or classroom setting. It also provides specific recommendations for teachers to help mitigate the impact of trauma on children in the classroom.
Olson, K. (2014). The Invisible Classroom: Relationships, Neuroscience & Mindfulness in School. WW. Norton & Company, Inc., NY. Format: Book Audiences/age groups: educators/preK-high school Summary:
The Post Institute: Trauma, Brain, & Relationship: Helping Children Heal http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYyEEMlMMb0 Format: video, 25 minutes Audiences/age groups: professionals/infants-adolescents Summary: This video shows leaders in child development, social neuroscience, and trauma explaining how important a child’s early years are to development, and, in particular, how important early relationships with caregivers are to healthy development. Discusses how parents, professionals, and policy makers can interact with, teach, and care for children in ways that foster healthy development. Explains how important it is for parents and caregivers to tune in to, read, and respond appropriately to a child’s signals.
Principles for Working with Traumatized Children http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/bruceperry/working_children.htm Format: article, 2 pages Audiences/age groups: professionals/toddler-elementary Summary: Describes the overactive stress response of traumatized children and offers nine guidelines for professionals and caregivers working with children exposed to trauma including: don’t be afraid to talk about the trauma, providing consistent predictable routines, how to be appropriately comforting, nurturing and affectionate, providing choices, what to do when you see signs of reenactment, etc.
Instructional Principles, Curricular Domains, and Specific Strategies for Compassionate Classrooms Chapter 3 in, Wolpow, R., Johnson, M.M., Hertel, R., & Kincaid, S.O. (2011). The Heart of Learning and Teaching: Compassion, Resiliency, and Academic Success. Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. http://www.k12.wa.us/compassionateschools/pubdocs/TheHeartofLearningandTeaching.pdf Format: Comprehensive trauma-informed schools implementation pdf booklet, 67 pages Audiences/age groups: educators/K-secondary Summary: Explains strategies for fostering safe, trauma-sensitive learning environments and a three domain “Compassionate Curriculum” (Connection and Assurance, Emotional and Behavioral Self-Regulation, and Competencies for Personal Agency, Social Skills, and Academic Skills) from the State of Washington’s trauma-informed schools initiative.
Suggestions for Educators http://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/assets/pdfs/CTTE_Educators.pdf Format: tip sheet pdf, 2 pages Audiences/age groups: caregivers, professionals, parents/preK-secondary Summary: This document provides a list of simple and straightforward strategies educators can use to accommodate a traumatized child in the school setting. It also teaches educators how to determine when traumatic stress reactions are severe enough to merit a referral for additional help.